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Blended Synchronous and Asynchronous Online Learning: Pre-Service EFL Teachers’ Perception (A Proposal)

  INTRODUCTION A. Background Since the beginning of 2020, the covid-19 pandemic has been a global public health catastrophe. It has been disrupting almost all sectors, including education. To contain the spread of the virus, practicing social distancing is indispensable and schools are forced to create a big change in the system. In Indonesia, the ministry of education had proposed to shift the offline classes into online classes at every level of education since March 2020. Applying online learning (henceforth is abbreviated OL) or e-learning has become the most feasible solution during the pandemic because it enables students to access and learn the materials anytime and anywhere. It also allows students and teachers to communicate from a distance. Students can also read and respond every time (Lim 2017). OL is classified into a triad of synchronous, asynchronous, and hybrid or blended learning (Perveen, 2016; Dorsah & Alhassan, 2021). Synchronous OL, such as live students presen
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  What is a Literature Review? A literature review is a scholarly used to examine the state of knowledge and understanding of the academic literature on a topic or issue placed in context.  It summarizes, synthesizes, and critics (evaluates) journal articles, books, conference papers, books, government documents, and other documents of academic value to illuminate how knowledge has evolved within the field and highlight what has been done, what is generally accepted, what is emerging and what is the present state of thinking on the topic. Literature reviews have two types. First, it can be a stand-alone product, which summarizes, synthesizes, and critiques existing studies on specific a topic and drives a conclusion about current understanding . This type of literature review is written in a structure similar to a standard essay, i.e., introduction, main body, and conclusion (See this article as an example). Second, it can be part of a larger research project, which provides an ove