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Essay Elements and Structure

  As stated in The Nature, History, and Types of Essay , a n essay is a prose non-fiction piece of writing with a varying length that addresses a thing, a person, a problem, or an issue from the author's personal point of view. To make the discussion effective, the elements that build the description, narration, exposition, or arguments in an essay should be well-organized. Structurally, the basic elements of an essay are organized into three main sections (introduction, body, and conclusion), as illustrated by the following figure. Figure 1. Basic essay Structure  ( (from https://peachyessay.com/blogs/how-to-structure-essay/ ) The followings are a brief description of each essay element. To make the description effective, the essay titled How Reading Empowers EFL Learners is referred to as an illustration. Thus, you are suggested to read it first before continuing reading the next section. A . INTRODUCTORY PARAGRAPH The general statement or orientation to the topic is one or
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How Reading Empowers EFL Learners

  Reading has been acknowledged as an extremely important habit for everyone since the time immemorial. Adults need to read to keep being up to date that facilitates them to make the right decisions. For older people, reading is advantageous because it slows down the progress of (or possibly even prevents) Alzheimer’s and other forms of dementia. For children, reading nurtures curiosity which further stimulates them to read more and to study. For students, regardless of their study field, reading is crucial because it facilitates knowledge enlargement, critical and analytical thinking skills advancement, creativity development, and cheap but healthy entertainment. For English as a foreign language (EFL) learners, however, reading is exclusively more than just a learning tool. It empowers them in many ways. This essay discusses four ways how reading is exclusively more than just a learning tool for EFL learners. It starts with how reading provides exposure, reinforces and recombines pre

The Nature, History, and Types of Essay

What is an essay? Essays are used in almost all scientific disciplines and areas of life involving writing. This makes essays are defined in many ways and have various features, styles, and lengths. The term "essay" is adopted from the French verb “essayer”, which means "to try". Meanwhile, the word essayer is adopted from the Latin noun "exagium" which roughly translates to presenting one’s case ," or the Latin verb "exigo" which means "to examine, to try, to test" (gold purity). In English, the word “essay” basically means "to attempt" or "to try". Thus, etymologically, an essay can be defined as a writer’s attempt to express his opinion through written language. Because essay writing is an "attempt", the writer is not obliged to answer the issues discussed in a final manner. The basic purpose of an essay is not to solve a problem but to stimulate discussion. Bacon (1985) accentuates that an essa

Impacts of Point of View in Fiction

  Impacts of Point of View in Fiction   In the previous article titled  Point of View in Fiction: Nature and Types ,  we have seen that point of view  is essentially a method of presentation. It is the particular voice (or narrator, speaker, teller or persona) selected by the author through which he conveys his story, defines a problem, or describes a state of mind. In writing a story, an author can choose one or more of the first-person, the second-person, or the third person to suit his intentions. Thus, to the readers, point of view is  the perspective  through  which they see the action, observe the characters, view the setting, hear the dialogues and even learn what a character thinks and feels by seeing inside his or her mind (if the author employs the omniscient viewpoint). Different points of view naturally impact the information sent. If you listen to five different persons who saw an accident, you will get five different versions of report, depending on where each of them w

Point of View in Fiction: Nature and Types

  What is a Point of View? To convey a story, an author purposively chooses the position, angle, or point from which the details (feelings, thoughts, motivations, and experiences, etc.) of the work are considered, observed, perceived, and described. As a literary device, such position is called the point of view which refers to the vantage point from which the events of a story seem to be observed and presented to the reader (Baldick, 2001) or "the outlook from which the events are related (Cuddon, 2013, p. 761). Since it is the angle through which details of the story are expressed, it determines how the reader understands, participates, and responds to the story. Point of view is essentially a method of presentation. It is the particular voice (or narrator, speaker, teller, or persona) selected by the author through which he tells his story, defines a problem, or describes a state of mind. Thus, it is created by the author by selecting who tells the story and how the informati

An Analysis of the Theme of Hemingway’s “Old Man at the Bridge”

  An Analysis of the Theme of Hemingway’s “Old Man at the Bridge” Introduction The theme is one of the most interesting elements of fiction, including a short story. It refers to the central idea or meaning that the author wants to convey to the readers. Some stories convey a single theme, but some other stories have several themes. Since short stories are related to human life, Alternbend and Lewis (1966, p. 78) define theme as “The general vision of life or the more explicit proposition about human experience that literature conveys”. In relation to this, one of the easiest ways to determine the theme of a short story is by asking ourselves, “What does the story say about life? The theme of fiction is generally presented through the other elements of fiction, particularly the plot and characterization. This article is a venture to analyze the theme of Hemingway’s Old Man at the Bridge . This story is interesting to analyze due to two reasons. First, it is based on Hemingway’s exp

Characters and Characterization Techniques in Gale’s “Bill”

  Characters and Characterization Techniques in Gale’s “Bill” Parlindungan Pardede parlpard2020@gmail.com Introduction In fiction, characters are defined as “anything (persons, animals, plants, or other creatures and things} representing people (Pardede, 2020). In fiction, characters play an important role because they are the performer who carries the events that establish the story illustrate and personify the themes. Cuddon (2013) stated that character refers to the person portrayed in a narrative or dramatic work. Thus, to get the meaning of a story, the reader should understand the characters’ psychological traits, personalities, and other attributes. To present a character, authors can use one or both of the expository and dramatic method of characterization. The expository method is conducted by describing a character using explicit statements either by the author or by another character in the same story. The dramatic method reveals the character to the readers through action.